Introduction of Packet Data On Computer Networks

Posted on Juni 21, 2013

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ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a protocol within the TCP / IP Protocol Suite is responsible for committing the resolution of IP addresses to Media Access Control address (MAC address).
In the network usually has indeed been given an IP address. But the hardware address (eg mac-address) still used to transport data from one host to another host. In Mikrotik RouterOS, a router has ARP table. That table contains ARP inputs. ARP input consists of the ip address and mac-address as well as information which interface is used.

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol family. ICMP is primarily used by network computer operating systems to send error message that states, for example, that can not reach the destination computer. ICMP with different goals in terms of TCP and UDP ICMP is not used directly by the user’s network applications. one exception is the ping application that sends ICMP Echo Request messages (and receives Echo Reply) to determine whether the purpose computer is reachable and how long packets sent by the destination computer returned.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) DHCP is a protocol-based client / server architecture is used to facilitate the allocation of IP addresses in a network. A local network that does not use DHCP to give IP addresses to all computers manually. If DHCP is installed on the local network, all computers are connected in the network will automatically get an IP address and DHCP server. In addition to an IP address, a lot of network parameters which may be provided by DHCP, such as the default gateway and DNS server. DHCP is defined in RFC 2131 and RFC 2132, published by the Internet Engineering Task Force. DHCP is an extension of the protocol Bootsrapt Protocol (BOOTP). How it Works DHCP Since DHCP is a protocol that uses a client / server architecture in DHCP then there are two parties involved, yakti DHCP Server and DHCP Client.

  • DHCP server is a machine that runs a service that can “rent” an IP address and TCP / IP information to all other clients who request it. Some network operating systems such as Windows NT Server, Windows 200 Server, Windows 2003 Server or GNU / Linux has a service like this.
  • DHCP client is a client machine running DHCP client software that allows them to communicate with the DHCP Server. Most of the network client operating systems (Windows NT Workstation, Windows 200 Professional, Windows XP, Windows Vista or GNU / Linux)

The DHCP function is to provide automatic IP numbers to computers that do requests.

Domain Name System (DNS) is an application service on the Internet that translates a domain name into an IP address and a type system that serves the IP address mapping request to FQPN (Fany Qualified Domain Name) and from FQDN to an IP address. DNS is usually used in applications related to the Web Browser sererti internet or e-mail, where DNS helps map the host name to an IP address of a computer. Besides being used in the Internet DNS can also be implemented to a private network or the Internet.

IP address stands for Internet Protocol addreess, which is a numerical identity were assigned to a device, such as a computer or printer, which is contained in a computer network that uses the Internet protocol as a means of communication.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport layer of the protocol is (the fourth layer of the OSI model) is a connection-oriented (connection-oriented) and reliable (reliable). Computers that are connected to the internet or to, communicate using this protocol. Because it uses the same language, namely: TCP / IP, differences or differences in the type of computer operating system do not make trouble.

UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol, is a transport layer protocol TCP / IP that supports communication unreliable (unreliable), without connection (connectionless) between the hosts in the network using TCP / IP. This protocol is defined in RFC 768.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is a protocol for asking and answering between client and server. Develop a HTTP client such as a web browser, usually start making the connection request to TCP / IP to a specific port at a distance (usually port 80). An HTTP server listening on that port waiting for the client to send code requests (request) that will request a page that has been determined, followed by a MIME message which has several heads of information code that describes aspects of the request, followed by the agency of specified data.
HTTP communicates over TCP / IP. HTTP client connects to an HTTP server using TCP. After making the connection, the client can send an HTTP request to the server. HTTP is used to send requests from a web client (browser) to the web server, be returned to the right web content (web pages) from the server to the client.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a protocol that is used to exchange files in a network that uses TCP instead of UDP connections. Two things are important in FTP is an FTP Server and FTP Client.
FTP server is a server that is running software that serves to provide exchange services where the server files are always ready to provide FTP service if it received a request (request) from the FTP client.
FTP client is the requesting computer connection to the FTP server for file exchange purpose. Once connected to the FTP server, then the client can download, upload, rename, deleting, etc. in accordance with the permissions granted by the FTP server.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a protocol commonly used for sending electronic mail or e-mail on the Internet. This protocol is used to transmit data from the computer sending electronic mail to the recipient mail server. One of the TCP / IP protocol, which determines the distribution of mail on the Internet is called Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)-based ASCII code. Mail in ASCII code format used specifically for mail in the form of text documents. To transfer mail document in the form of graphics used binary format and uses a proprietary protocol called the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME).

POP (Post Office Protocol) is a protocol used to manage e-mail. With this facility will make it easier to get e-mail from a mail server without the need for long connections from the Internet. POP3 (POP – Version 3) is a standard for the Internet POP. This protocol will allow the client to access e-mails on the POP server dynamically and also allow to leave or delete e-mails on the POP Server through the POP client.

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a standard protocol to access / retrieve e-mails from the server. IMAP allows users to select an e-mail that he will take, create a folder on the server, search for specific e-mail messages, even deleted e-mail messages are there.

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